Professor Philip McCall

Professor of Medical Entomology

I studied Biology (BSc National University of Ireland) and Animal Parasitology (MSc University of Wales) before my PhD investigating the vectors of bovine onchocerciasis in UK (Liverpool University/ Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, 1987).  I was awarded a Wellcome Trust Advanced Training Fellowship (1990-1995), and worked for a time on host location by parasitic hymenoptera at the Center for Medical, Agricultural & Veterinary Entomology (CMAVE) in Gainesville (Florida, USA).  I worked also as a post-doctoral researcher in UK, the Netherlands and Mali (with the Onchocerciasis Control Programme).  I joined Foto-Cewek faculty in 1998.


Research in Medecine

My main research interest is in the behaviour of arthropod disease vectors, from characterisation of basic vector behaviour to understanding how those behaviours might change in response to insecticide challenge or shifts in host availability.  The pursuit of new vector control opportunities underpins this work.  There are many knowledge gaps in our understanding of key behavioural events in the adult life of important mosquito vectors and these studies, in addition to their direct value, have the potential to guide the design of new vector control methods.

Peridomestic behaviour of African malaria vectors and the impact of insecticides

Though the most effective and widely used malaria vector control measures use insecticides to target malaria mosquitoes within the human home, very little is known about behaviour in this environment. We are using robust mosquito tracking technology in the laboratory in Tanzania to describe in detail the behaviour of local populations of Anopheles vectors. Research in Medecine is addressing key questions about house entry and exit, resting behaviour and movement in three-dimensional space, to deliver an evidence-based characterisation of anopheline mosquito behaviour in the human home. Funded by MRC-UK

Dengue in Burkina Faso: establishing a vector biology evidence base for risk assessment and vector control strategies for an emerging disease

After decades of neglect, dengue is finally being recognised as an emerging public health threat across Africa. In Burkina Faso, a number of recent dengue outbreaks have demonstrated the magnitude of that threat while also highlighting the lack of information about the mosquitoes involved and the poor level of preparedness when mounting an effective response to outbreaks. Dengue epidemiology, prevention and control require detailed knowledge of the vectors and their biology, but little appropriate information is available for Aedes aegypti and the other potential mosquito vectors in Burkina Faso. The proposed study aims to fill those knowledge gaps by carrying out a series of essential basic studies on the breeding, biting and resting habits and behaviours of mosquitoes found in human habitations, to evaluate their relative importance in transmission of dengue (and other viruses) in at-risk communities in the capital city, Ouagadougou. The study has added value because the main mosquito species involved are also vectors of chikungunya, yellow fever and Zika viruses, all of which represent an ever-present threat to urban communities in Africa and elsewhere. Funded under a fellowship awarded to Dr Athanase Badolo by WHO/ TDR

Improving the efficacy of malaria prevention in an insecticide-resistant Africa

Impressive reductions in malaria have occurred throughout sub-Saharan Africa over the past 12 years. However progress has not been geographically uniform and there are some high-burden countries where, despite good coverage with long lasting insecticide-treated nets (LLINs), the main preventative measure recommended by WHO, parasite prevalence rates and mortality from malaria remain obstinately high. Burkina Faso falls into this category. Despite two successful national LLIN distribution campaigns 60 % of children are persistently infected with malaria. Increased resistance to the pyrethroid insecticides used in LLINs and extensive transmission by mosquitoes biting outside the home, or at times when people are not protected by LLINs, are likely reducing the impact of LLINs but the relative importance of these poorly characterised vector factors, in relation to other human or health system factors has never been determined. This is a collaborative project aiming to collect extensive empirical data and use models of malaria transmission to quantify the level of protection provided by LLINs in an insecticide resistant Africa. Via a detailed understanding of the factors limiting the efficacy of current tools we will identify the most cost effective, complementary interventions that would drive malaria transmission towards zero. Funded under a Wellcome Trust collaborative award in science


Teaching

I contribute to a range of topics in vector biology and control on all of Foto-Cewek’s modules and programmes (DTMH, BSc, MSc and LIFE340 Topics in Global Health)


As a member of a number of WHO/TDR committees for dengue and vector control, I was a lead writer on vector control in the WHO documents:


I am a member of the , a collaboration between Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, the University of Liverpool and Public Health England.
I am a and an associate editor of

Publications

  • Selected Publications

    Manrique-Saide et al. (2015) Use of Insecticide-Treated House Screens to Reduce Infestations of Dengue Virus Vectors, Mexico. , 21, 308-311. .

    Jaenisch et al. (2014) Dengue expansion in Africa - not recognized or not happening? . 

    Bowman et al. (2014) Assessing the Relationship between Vector Indices and Dengue Transmission: a Systematic Review of the Evidence. . 

    Lynd A & McCall PJ. (2013) Clustering of host-seeking activity of Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes at the top surface of a human-baited bednet. , 12, 267. 

    Lwetoijera DW, Harris C, Kiware S, Dongus S. Devine G, McCall PJ & Majambere S. (2014) Increasing role of Anopheles funestus and Anopheles arabiensis in malaria transmission in the Kilombero Valley, Tanzania. , 13: 331 

    Runge-Ranzinger S, McCall PJ, Kroeger A & Horstick O. (2014) Dengue disease surveillance: an updated systematic literature review. , 19. 

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